The James Bay and Northern Québec Agreement (JBNQA) divides the territory of Northern Québec into three categories of lands:
- Category I: Lands reserved exclusively for the use and benefit of the Crees and other Indigenous nations;
- Category II: Public-domain provincial lands on which hunting, fishing and trapping rights are reserved exclusively for the Indigenous peoples;
- Category III: Public-domain provincial lands on which the right to harvest certain aquatic species and certain fur-bearing animals is reserved exclusively for the Indigenous peoples.
The Adapted Forestry Regime (AFR) applies on Category II and III lands. These are the categories of lands referred to when Cree participation in forest planning is mentioned, in the context of AFR harmonization under the Sustainable Forest Development Act (SFDA) of April 1, 2013 and the Agreement on Governance in the Eeyou Istchee James Bay Territory between the Crees of Eeyou Istchee and the Gouvernement du Québec.
Forest management units
A management unit (MU) is the Québec public-domain forest territorial reference unit (TRU) used as the basis for calculating allowable cut (maximum volume of timber that may be harvested from time to time without altering the forest environment’s productive capacity) and for forest management planning.
On Adapted Forestry Regime (AFR) territory, the management units are composed of groupings of Cree traplines. The territory’s 15 MUs were determined jointly by the Crees and the Québec government.
“Cree trapline (or trapping grounds)” designates a traditional family territory where users practise their traditional way of life, notably hunting, fishing and trapping. On Adapted Forestry Regime (AFR) territory, the Cree trapline corresponds to the territorial reference unit (TRU).